The Basic Science Research Concept

“So are you trying to make plants more defended?”

This is often the first question I encounter when I share my research questions with anyone that does not spend their work life thinking about plants. Before the conversation can get much further, I find it helps to introduce the difference between basic science research and applied research.

Both are important, but it is easier for people to connect with applied research: research designed to improve the way humans live. However, many of the solutions we use today came as a result of discoveries from basic science research: research designed to understand the way something works for the sake of understanding.

Like what?

PCR: the technology that lets us duplicate tiny amounts of DNA, was only possible because a scientist was curious about how acidic and hot Yellowstone hot springs could be for bacteria to survive. Bacteria flourishing at high temperatures have DNA too, and the enzymes that could replicate DNA despite the heat were eventually extracted and were able to withstand the hot temperatures in PCR.

Efficient building design: scientists were curious about the structure of termite mounds, which can maintain a constant temperature despite the heat of the desert. The results from these studies were used to construct a building in Zimbabwe (The Eastgate Centre) that uses 90% less energy.

Velcro, the ubiquitous adhesive found on light-up shoes, was inspired by plant hook-shaped hairs.

And the list goes on. The moral of the story is that technology gets along well with natural selection, but first we have to understand how it all works.

My research goal is to understand how plant-insect interactions change as a result of the chemistry within the plants that have a symbiotic relationship with nitrogen-fixing bacteria. I spend my time at my desk wondering about how and when plants will use their resources to make the stuff that protect them- either directly by making poisonous chemicals, or indirectly, by sending volatile compounds into the air to communicate with the predators of their attackers.

Instead of trying to get plants to do anything, my goal is to understand what they actually do on their own- to understand the unknown aspects of their biology.

Do these bacteria play an important role in the food web by altering plant-insect interactions? My research will let you know.

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Blogging your way to a PhD?

In the publish or perish world, sometimes it feels like a guilty pleasure to write for fun. However, polishing individual concepts in clear language rarely gets in the way of stimulating broader connections. Here is a wonderful blog post by Calvin Ho from the Thesis Whisperer on blog writing as a practice.

The Thesis Whisperer

Calvin Ho (@calvinhyj) is a PhD student in Sociology at the University of California, Los Angeles. He researches skilled labour immigration policies in Western countries. Through the Mellon Mays Undergraduate Fellowship program at UCLA, he also mentors minority students planning to pursue doctorates in the humanities and social sciences.

Calvin is an avid blogger and in this post he will tell you how blogging can help you with your PhD writing. If you want to see how PhD students blog, have a look at our page of PhD blogs. Take it away Calvin!

Screen Shot 2015-05-04 at 3.37.05 pmAcademics don’t often talk about how they write. By how, I mean the nitty-gritty how. Sure, you may set up your laptop in a coffee shop and open up a Word document, but how do you go from blank page to finished thesis?

One strategy is to write blog posts. Many academics are wary of…

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Plants with Benefits

Maintaining relationships, even great ones, can be challenging.

Some plants juggle multiple relationships ALL of the time.

Think of an organism that does something helpful for a plant. Bees, hummingbirds, and other pollinators may come to mind. But plants also recruit toucans, black bears, and other seed dispersers as well as predatory insects such as ants and wasps for defense.

And then there are microbes.

My goal for this research paper was to show how one microbe in particular, nitrogen-fixing bacteria called rhizobia, can alter a plants’ entire network of relationships—from the bottom-up.

Rhizobia live inside nodules on plant roots in a tight-knit symbiotic relationship, exchanging fertilizer for sugars from photosynthesis. Plants that form this relationship benefit immensely from the nitrogen, but providing sugar in return can tax the plant.

Plants like dip n' dots too. #rhizobia #nitrogenfixation #biopsu

A post shared by Adrienne Godschalx (@agodschalx) on

Plants also use their homemade sugar to secrete extrafloral nectar. Nectar typically attracts pollinators, but in the case of extrafloral nectar, plants produce nectar to attract ants, which patrol their sugar source like bodyguards. By evicting intruding bugs attempting to feed on the host plant, extrafloral nectar can be an effective indirect plant defense…

…as long as the ants show up to do their part.

But the key result from our paper is that ants are less attracted to plants that have nitrogen-fixing rhizobia in root nodules belowground. Keep in mind- the ants and bacteria do not interact directly. What connects ant to bacteria?

The plant between them.

Plant chemistry changes when plants form symbiosis with rhizobia. Plants with nitrogen-fixers make more of the nitrogen-based traits, protein and cyanogenesis. Surprise. But these plants also secrete less sugary nectar, therefore attracting fewer ants.

Even in the plant world, some relationships can be more demanding than others.

How do rhizobia cause plants to compromise their ant relationships?

It could be that rhizobia demand so much sugar to keep the nitrogen flowing that the plant’s excess sugar supply is exhausted, leaving little to serve as ant lures. Alternatively, why would plants that get a constant supply of nitrogen to make cyanide need to attract ants anyways?

Either way, we now know rhizobia can change plant relationships with ants.

But why would that matter?
Ants are everywhere- so are rhizobia. Both play important roles in how ecosystems function, but the fact that they can indirectly affect one another may have strong and widely overlooked impacts on plant ecology.

© Adrienne Godschalx (adrg@pdx.edu) August 19, 2015

The Front of the Train

One major goal in science education is to teach students how to think like a scientist. In many cases, this means teaching science the way we do science, which is often through inquiry and research. But before students can strike out in the lab on their own with a pipette and a new question to answer, they need to learn the foundational information that came from research before them.

I like to think of this challenge using a visual from Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance. The front of a train represents the interface between the past experiences we carry with us and the unknown track ahead. Even while being hung up on a past memory or anxious about what may come, the front of the train is what we continually witness: here and now, moving through time.

Science research is also the front of the train, where discovery happens. The challenge in science education is starting at the back of the train and working forwards to cover all of where we have been (which is usually presented in textbook format), in order to get students to the front of the train, asking their own questions and making their own connections.

However, covering the entire textbook before getting to the inquiry and connecting part creates a problem: we are training students to passively ride along like a train car as we move forward in what we know, until suddenly, students make it to the front and come up against what we do not yet know. If students have not practiced asking questions or thinking about how to figure out the next step, when they do conduct research, they are not prepared to discuss it.

A true discussion explains how this new piece of information fits into our understanding of the world—how the shape of our overall understanding changes with this new dimension. To connect new observations to the big picture requires not only extensive background knowledge on the subject, but also creativity. Drawing lines that never existed or imagining a differently-shaped perspective are essential skills in science.

I watched this happen as a high school student I was mentoring in research presented her work to her high school. She was able to introduce complicated biology topics: plant secondary metabolism and symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing bacteria, describe what she did in the lab, and even interpret a few graphs. But then she pulled up a slide titled “discussion” and she listed potential sources of error, including the size of the pots, and even “human error” in her count data. I was baffled by this until a colleague reminded me that the science most students do in school has a known outcome, and if data do not match that outcome, students are trained to explain why not by citing sources of error that caused results to stray from what they were supposed to find.

This is an important paradigm shift. A well-designed, controlled experiment does not have sources of error because the result is not yet known. So how should students discuss and interpret unknown results?

A true discussion explains how this new piece of information fits into our understanding of the world—how the shape of our overall understanding changes with this new dimension. To connect new observations to the big picture requires not only extensive background knowledge on the subject, but also creativity. Drawing lines that never existed or imagining a differently-shaped perspective are essential skills in science.

So how do we teach these skills if we have to cover sufficient background info for students to grasp the current state of science knowledge with enough proficiency to draw new connections? A formal answer to this question is a recipe for grant funding, but I think any educator intuitively knows the secret ingredient:

Learning how to ask questions.

Question confidence is where science progresses- where the massive train of knowledge comes up against the wind at the front. This also explains why many funding agencies highlight the importance of scientists coming from diverse backgrounds: to ask diverse questions, use creativity to draw conclusions and serve as role models for a diverse group of students learning how to gain their own question confidence.

Feel free to offer resources or ideas about how to help more students think like a scientist.

The Crazy Things Plants do for Nitrogen

What’s the big deal with nitrogen, you ask? Nitrogen is the key ingredient in proteins. In biology, if our DNA does the talkin’, proteins do the walkin’. Proteins can be enzymes that help reactions happen. In plants, the sugar-making part of photosynthesis, (aka the dark cycle) is run by an enzyme called RuBisCO, which also happens to be the most abundant enzyme on earth. The remarkable thing about this super important enzyme, responsible for turning CO2 into sugars, is that it is a super slow, clunky enzyme. Plants often compensate for its slowness by making more of it. More enzyme=more protein. Plants need nitrogen to make proteins.

I thought about naming this post: “Nodules, photosynthetic pathways, and carnivorous plants, oh my!” But the number of syllables got in my way. Still, these three evolutionary wonders all help plants deal with limited nitrogen, and deserve to show up in a blog post together.

But why are plants so nitrogen-limited in nature?

The answer includes a terrifying word from Intro to Chemistry: stoichiometry. (Which I recently learned from this fantastic paper: Nitrogen and Nature.)

The number of nitrogen molecules in plants is small among all of the carbon molecules, which drives the ratio of carbon to nitrogen molecules the leaf litter, overwhelming the soil with carbon and making nitrogen hard to come by. Further, nitrogen is typically stuck directly to carbon in a covalent bond, which is harder to break off than ionic bonds that work like magnets. Even when nitrogen is in this “magnetic” form, these ions are negatively charged—just like soil particles—and easily leech from the soil with rainwater.

Yes, that is why nitrogen is limited in the soil, but most of the nitrogen in the world is in the air; isn’t there plenty of it in the air that plants could use? The atmosphere is made up of roughly 79% nitrogen. Unfortunately, that nitrogen is not accessible to plants. Each nitrogen is tightly bound to a second nitrogen atom like this: N≡N, and triple bonds are especially tough to break, even for a plant.

But some bacteria can break all three bonds!! Microbes have crazy metabolic pathways, many of which are crucial to the chemical balance of the world existing as we know it. By turning N≡N into fertilizer in a process called nitrogen fixation, the nitrogen cycle is driven by microbes.

Evolutionary wonder #1: Some plants figured this out (over evolutionary time), and formed a symbiotic relationship with nitrogen-fixing bacteria. These groups of bacteria: rhizobia, Frankia, and cyanobacteria, live in nodules on their plant hosts’ roots and provide a source of house-made fertilizer in exchange for sugars. Plants, which do photosynthesis, that have nitrogen-fixing bacteria in their roots represent the interface of two important geochemical cycles: the nitrogen and carbon cycles.

Not only are plants solar-powered sugar factories, but some plants can make sugars through several different metabolic pathways: C3, C4, and CAM. For perspective- we don’t even have one carbon assimilating pathway, but the plant kingdom has three.

Evolutionary Wonder #2: In “normal photosynthesis”, or C3 photosynthesis, plants lose water through pores called stomata when they take in carbon to turn into sugars. Some plants reduce the amount of water they lose by either opening their stomata at night when the air is cooler (Crassulacean Acid Metabolism or CAM), or by concentrating the CO2 in a separate compartment with those super slow enzymes (C4). Why are these nitrogen-limited adaptations? Because making enzymes more efficient helps plants with the initial problem of needing nitrogen to churn out tons of slow, clunky enzymes.

Yet some plants carry out old fashioned C3 photosynthesis without any N-fixing bacteria in root nodules and are able to live in extremely nitrogen-poor soil. Their secret? Eat the tiny packets of nitrogen buzzing and crawling everywhere around them.

Evolutionary wonder #3: Carnivorous plants are exciting because they deviate from our basic understanding of what plants do. When my mom let me buy a $4.99 Venus fly trap at City Market, my mind was blown. I wrote songs and recorded one too many home videos about the plant that eats flies!

Even Darwin himself was excited by this menacing behavior and laid some groundwork for research on how Venus flytraps close in on their prey.

Despite the diversity of strategy, ranging from pitcher plants that collect bugs that slip into the plants’ digestive juices to sticky plants that catch bugs with glandular hairs, carnivorous plants evolved to deal with stressful environments lacking that not-so-secret ingredient in all proteins:

Nitrogen.

How I Became a Scientist

Recently I found myself at a table across from wide-eyed students at a job fair asking me how I became a scientist.  I knew immediately that answer to their question was my experience at Outdoor School as a high school student leader. Here is a great video from Oregon Field Guide that shows what Outdoor School looks like.

At one point, every sixth grade student in Oregon attended Outdoor School, which is one reason Portlanders and Oregononians claim the “outdoorsy” stereotype proudly. This article describes that fundamental role Outdoor School plays in our community.

But now, not all school districts have funding for their students to have these experiences. A new movement, Outdoor School for All, aims to get every sixth grade student in Oregon back out for a full week of Outdoor School. As this program started with government funding, a sustainable solution to get all of our kids outside now relies on government funding again. So in order to help secure House Bill 2648 and Senate Bill 439, we need letters to explain why Outdoor School matters. You are welcome to use this letter generator to write one too!

Here is how Outdoor School ignited my passion as a scientist:

Dear Lawmakers,

Science is my path to make a difference. I discovered this passion in the pouring rain beneath a forest of big-leaf maples covered in moss with five inquisitive sixth graders. We were testing the dissolved oxygen of the Salmon River when Rosa’s eyes lit up and she exclaimed, “I never knew I could learn all this!” When this student realized she was capable of understanding the natural world and cared about the world she discovered—this same moment I knew how I would spend my life. I built community, excited students about learning, and discovered my talents in creating joy for ecology. My exposure to science while volunteering as a student leader for the MESD Outdoor School program gave me the momentum, passion, and confidence to become a woman in science.

There are a few reasons Outdoor School is a powerful way for students to learn. First, the Outdoor School textbook “chapters”: plants, animals, soil and water, are written in words every child can understand by touching, seeing, and experiencing each one in order through a full day dedicated to experientially studying each area. Second, throughout one school week at Outdoor School, students have enough time to process each day of field study and make connections between them. I have seen countless students in awe of how interconnected the plants, animals, soil and water really are. I feel it too. Because of this, I live with more connection to the earth, more affinity for discovery, and more passion for sharing this awe with the global community.

I finally understood why this feeling of awe can be so powerful when Dr. Kelly Swing, the director of the Tiputini Biodiversity Station in Ecuador, quoted an Amazonian tribe leader in a presentation to visiting students:

“We only know what we see; we only love what we know; we only care about what we love”. This has become my personal mission statement.

Some days I feel powerless. Numbers can be defeating—statistics on global carbon emissions, deforestation rates, biodiversity loss, increased poverty, inequality in human rights, and school shootings lead me to question whether I can have a positive impact. Science gives me hope; through science more people have a reason to care. My goal is to create research to discover new results, my findings will allow deeper understanding, and through understanding my work will facilitate an affinity for ecology. Through practice I know I have the power to connect as a science instructor and I have the power to connect across cultural boundaries—both of these skills started at Outdoor School. Of course I am still refining the art of connecting people from many different backgrounds to science, but luckily science inquiry is a task that has brought me joy ever since I learned how to teach at Outdoor School.

Teaching others to wonder and think like a scientist has arisen from my own process in asking questions about the natural world. By asking questions I gained many answers and many more questions. I have learned to measure the success of my scientific endeavors by the questions they lead me to next. Many mentors have shaped the way I frame my curiosity. This also what makes Outdoor School successful: mentors. High school students act as role models while presenting science to sixth graders, all while learning from their own mentors, the Outdoor School staff, how to be a leader and their best selves. I am extremely grateful for my mentors from Outdoor School that helped me build confidence and joy for life. I carried this confidence with me to study biology in college and eventually returned to work at Outdoor School to give back.

While I worked as a Field Instructor, I struggled for a long time to develop a curriculum that fully encapsulated all of the desired concepts, to be sure each student was able to feel that awe when they understand how everything connects. But then I realized from watching my high school volunteers engaging their students in measuring the dissolved oxygen of the Salmon River, that community was the secret ingredient generating passion for science. In moments of discovery and connection to community: that is where change happens.

Thank you very much for your time and consideration. Please give all kids in Oregon the chance to experience Outdoor School. I ask that you move the Outdoor School Legislation, HB 2648 and SB 439, out of committee with funding in order to be voted on and passed into law.

Sincerely,

Adrienne Godschalx

Say it in 3 Minutes

The 3 Minute Thesis Competition was a wonderful way to practice distilling down my research to the underlying story. Now I describe my research in conversation with anyone with greater ease because of this opportunity. I recommend participating in next year’s competition. Go Vikings!

Sona Andrews' Blog

3MT

On May 8, a total of 12 graduate students from Portland State University, University of Oregon, Oregon Health & Science University, and Oregon State University competed in the 2015 Statewide ChampionshipThree Minute Thesis Competition.” They represented the 1st, 2nd, and People’s Choice winners from their respective institutions.

The Three-Minute Thesis
The Three Minute Thesis (3MT®) is an academic competition developed in 2008 by the University of Queensland, Australia, for master’s and doctoral students. It has since spread to 200 universities in 18 countries. Students participating in the competition develop academic, presentation, and research communication skills by consolidating their research and presenting it to a non-specialist audience in just three minutes and one static slide. That is only 180 seconds!

winners PSU students competing in statewide competition. (Left to right) Taylor Sharpe, Yu-Shan Wang and Adrienne Godschalx

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How to Catch a Bee

During my days as a summer camp unit director, one of my campers brought me a flower. When I looked closer, I realized this 11-year-old was not interested in the flower, but the bee and spider on top of the flower, head to head. I assumed they were fighting, but they were both pretty still, and it dawned on me that the bee was a goner, locked in the “jaws” of the spider, whom I figured had won the fight. I was still wrong, and the reality of this interaction is even cooler than I had imagined:

The spider hunts by hiding in flowers that attract their prey, the bees.

I posted my spider-bee-flower pic on Instagram recently, which received more interest than I had expected. I even had comments asking about the evolution of this flower-sitting ambush spider, so I looked it up, and I stumbled upon a cool chemical ecology story.

The first thing I learned is that, when given a choice, both the bees and this group of spiders, crab spiders, pick the same flowers. By covering the flower with saran-wrap and watching the spiders’ flower choice change, scientists were able to figure out that spiders are choosing their flowers by following chemical signals in the air, aka smells. This means these spiders are adapted to smelling out flowers that are more likely to attract their dinner.

Do bees fall for this trap? Bees not only fall for this ambush, but are more attracted to flowers with spiders than to safe, spider-free flowers.  Why would a bee fly closer to a purple flower that has a white, hungry spider in the middle?

Clearly, bees see differently from us. As I was perfecting my Instagram post, I was struck by my black and white Instagram filter, which showed the flower and spider as same shade of white (Figure 1). Even without extensive training in bee sensory biology, I figured there must be some sort of visual trick at play.

Figure 1. Screenshot of my Instagram post with 100% of the color saturation removed.

Too bad there is no UV filter on insta, because bees can see ultraviolet. Flowers take advantage of the bees’ visible spectrum in UV and often attract bees with target-like patterns, using dark UV spots in the middle. Darker UV target patterns can mean more pollination, so this trait is selected for in both flowers and bees.

So why are bees attracted to the crab spider flowers? Crab spiders have a layer of transparent cells covering spider skin cells that can change color! There are a few types of this pigment- the ommochrome pigment, which either allows spiders to or yellowish to red, or allows white spiders to have UV fluorescent patterns. With a UV pattern on their backs, flowers with spiders look like an extra dark flower target and attract bees more effectively than flowers without spiders.

Of course, natural selection goes both ways. Native bees in Australia fly close to, but can recognize and veer away from native crab spiders, whereas introduced honeybees have not adapted to recognize this danger.

Plants interact with insects and their predators. Scientists use the term “tritrophic interactions” to describe three trophic levels, or links in the food chain, interacting and affecting one another. As my thrilled camper and curious Instagram “fans” could pick up on, tritrophic interactions are fascinating! From an applied science perspective, knowing the intricacies of tritrophic interactions is essential to fully understand the side effects of potential global solutions in food security, and pest management, and conserving biodiversity.

-A

Note: All the papers I cite in this post are by Dr. Astrid M. Heiling, who has many other fantastic papers. Check her work out!

Incoming call: National Science Foundation

I knew grad school was about publish or perish—and in the meantime—secure some funding. What I did not know was that this daunting, impersonal process would contain happy instances of genuine personal interaction, like when a program officer called me to award funding over the phone.

The National Science Foundation is a government funded organization that supports a large chunk of federally-funded basic science research. Virtually every incoming graduate student  is encouraged to apply for the Graduate Research Fellowship Program, referred to as the GRFP on the streets. Part of the science lingo I had to learn in my first year of graduate school were all of the grant acronyms. The DDIG is the Doctoral Dissertation Improvement Grant, which funds research that allows PhD Candidates to take their work to the next level.

I had almost forgotten about my NSF DDIG grant proposal since I submitted it in October. Five months between deadline and verdict is a normal timeline for grants, which is both frustrating and a saving grace. The grace comes in taking some time apart from my own writing long enough to forget about it, lessening the blow to my writing ego when the funding judgement day arrives.

This time judgement day came in the middle of my commute to work as I was singing along to my guilty pleasure cd from a musical I saw in New York: If/Then. Not only am I obsessed with Idina Menzel, but I also love the challenge in this story about wondering “what if” along with every decision and life event, big or small.

And then Doug called.

It wasn’t completely out of the blue, since he sent me an email to inform me he wanted to call about my proposal, but the email sent me into a panic that something was missing or I selected the wrong category in the online application and my proposal was rejected without review. I was prepared to defend why this grant would improve my dissertation when Doug said, “Congratulations!” As he walked me through the logistics, I could not get over the fact that a program officer from the National Science Foundation called me instead of informing me mechanically by email. Hearing someone’s voice and knowing their name felt personal and genuine. Classy move, Doug.

-A

Note: Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

Feliz día: International Women’s Day

Many creative and brave women shaped the way we understand the world, including many women scientists.

Recently I bought a new computer, and I decided to name it after a groundbreaking woman scientist. Marie Curie, who pioneered radioactivity came to mind, as did Rosalind Franklin, who, independent of Watson and Crick, determined the structure of DNA using x-ray crystallography. But then… I was stumped.

Even as a scientist I could only name two famous women scientists who shaped my understanding of science. I was astonished I could not name more without a google search. I admire many women currently working on cutting-edge science, but I knew many lady scientists significantly contributed to developing the ideas that we teach in intro-level courses.

Luckily, as a teaching assistant, I get to learn introductory biology all over again. One day in principles of biology lecture, my advisor described the concept of how mitochondria and chloroplasts came to exists as organelles inside of a cell- and that Lynn Margulis, despite grief from her male colleagues, solidified the endosymbiotic theory—a way of thinking that is essential to our current understanding of biology.

Here is why endosymbiosis is so cool:

Remember learning about all of the organelles inside of a cell? And about how the mitochondria is the “powerhouse of the cell”? Plants have a “make-your-own-food-from-sunlight” organelle: chloroplasts. Both mitochondria and chloroplasts are surrounded by a second membrane and contain their own circular DNA, which led Lynn Margulis to propose the idea that these organelles were originally prokaryotes, like bacteria, which were engulfed by another cell! While inside the cell, this prokaryote/ organelle ancestor paid enough “rent” by producing ATP or creating sugars from sunlight, so the landlord cell kept its tenants around.

An entire domain of life began- eukaryotes. (We belong to this domain…so does your cat.)

Yet, as I hinted earlier, this theory explaining the origin of eukaryotes and the organelles providing the energy was not accepted with open arms. I am not sure if the theory would be equally as contested if a man proposed it, but as a woman, Lynn’s publication On the Origin of Mitosing Cells was rejected 15 times, and even after it was accepted and printed in 1967, she still was not widely accepted by her male colleagues who thought her idea was ridiculous.

But with sheer courage she persisted, and now overwhelming evidence supports the endosymbiotic origin for the mitochondria and chloroplast. First, if you take all of the mitochondria or chloroplasts out of a cell, the cell cannot make more, which implies the ancestor cell took it in to begin with. Not only do both organelles have their own DNA resembling that of bacteria, but when scientists look at the DNA sequences, the base pairs line up well with current prokaryotes. Cyanobacteria is the chloroplast’s closest relative, even though chloroplasts are found in plants!

I can’t even imagine what we would teach students about how eukaryotes gained extra organelles, which gave this domain of life access to energy that enabled the crazy diversity we see today.

Lynn continued in her career by showing how symbiotic interactions—organisms interacting with one another—can act as a major evolutionary force.  My own research depends on this concept, and involves a form of endosymbiosis: bean plants take up bacteria into their roots that turn atmospheric nitrogen into a form the plant can use. This cooperation between plants and bacteria enables both to flourish.

This weekend I was honored to participate as a mentor for a Women in Science day event: girls 12-18 years old toured Genentech, a leading biotech company and talked with a wide variety of scientists to learn about possible careers. I was struck by the momentum behind encouraging girls to pursue science, and the confidence that there is power in women’s perspectives in creating innovative science.

“Life did not take over the globe by combat, but by networking”- Lynn Margulis (and Dorion Sagan)